B1. Air



Emissions - air pollution sources


Stationary air pollution sources (REZZO 1-3)

The amount of emissions from stationary sources (REZZO 1-3) is nationally monitored for basic pollutants: particulate matter, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), ammonia (NH3) and other selected pollutants such as heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants.

Long-run detection and evaluation of the data document the long-term emission reduction in particulate matter, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from stationary sources. This favourable trend results from:



Fig B1.1 : Major stationary air pollution sources, Prague, 2011

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.1 : Total emissions generated by stationary
sources, Prague, 2011 – preliminary data [t.year-1]

2011particulate matterSO2NOx
4588032 195

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.2 : Number of registered air pollution
sources in Prague, 2011

Category2011
REZZO 1 – extremely large and large sources, total 213
REZZO 2 - mid-sized sources, total, of which: 2 880
Solid fuel 21
Liquid fuel 36
Gaseous fuel 2 495
Others incl. technologies sources 328

Source: ČHMÚ, ČIŽP, MHMP

Fig B1.2 : Specific emissions generated by stationary sources, Prague, 2000 – 2011
(Particulate matter emission from construction activities have been included since 2008)

Source: ČHMÚ, ČIŽP, MHMP


MOBILE AIR POLLUTION SOURCES (REZZO 4 – TRANSPORT)

The most significant source of pollutant emissions is road transport, whose negative effect persists. Evaluation of emission inventories of road traffic is analysed in the regular two- -year interval within the project ATEM – “Model evaluation of air quality in the City of Prague“.

Fig B1.3 : Emissions from transport - selected pollutants, 2011

Source: ATEM – Ateliér ekologických modelů, s.r.o.


GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS

The systematic monitoring of greenhouse gases emissions has shorter history in the Czech Republic than that in the case of classic pollutants registered in the Register of Emissions and Air Pollution Sources (see previous section). Greenhouse gases monitored within the conditions of the Czech Republic are as follows: carbon monoxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur fluoride(SF6), and two large groups of gases marked as partially (HFC) and completely (PFC) fluorinated hydrocarbons.

Specific emissions of greenhouse gases in Prague from the categories of sources monitored have been recently at stabilised level of approximately 7 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capita. Between 2010 and 2011 there was a significant decrease in emissions from solid fuel consumption and gas consumption and consumption of heat supplied from external sources, a similar development (decrease) could be seen also in all other categories except liquid fuels.

Fig B1.4 : Specific direct and indirect greenhouse gases emissions
on the territory of Prague, 2001; 2005 – 2011 [thous. t CO2 ekv. / person]

Source: D. Vácha

Fig B1.5 : Shares of sources of various categories
of greenhouse gases emissions in Prague, 2011


Source: D. Vácha


IMMISSIONS – AIR QUALITY


MEASURING NETWORK OF AIR QUALITY MONITORING

The level of air pollution is in objective manner determined by means of monitoring of pollutants concentration in the ground-level strata of atmosphere within the network of measuring stations. The evaluation of air quality, first of all, compares the measured levels in accordance with limits provided by law. The layout of measuring stations for air pollution monitoring on the territory of Prague in 2011 and representation of organisations performing the monitoring can be seen in Figure B1.6.

Fig B1.6 : Network of air quality measuring stations, Prague, 2011

Source: ČHMÚ


AIR QUALITY INDEX AT THE STATIONS IN PRAGUE AGGLOMERATION

Air quality index is an indicator that gives aggregated information about current air quality at a particular measuring station. Determination of air quality index is based on the evaluation of 1-hour concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and suspended particulate matter (PM10), 8-hour moving concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) and in summer time (1st April to 30th September) 1-hour concentrations of ground-level ozone (O3). Partial air quality index is calculated every hour for each pollutant in a given locality separately and as a defining value – the total air quality index – is presented the highest of them. Air quality index consists of six grades, i.e. from air quality evaluation as very good (1st grade of index) to air quality evaluation as very bad (6th grade of index). For year 2011, the air quality index was evaluated at 12 stations (station Prague 2 - Legerova was excluded from the evaluation due to the significant failure of measurements of suspended particulate matter PM10).


Fig B1.7 : The total air quality index (IKO) at stations in Prague agglomeration
in 2011 – the representation of individual index values

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.3 : Overview of stations at which air quality
index (IKO) was evaluated for year 2011

Station The measured pollutants whose concentrations were used for calculation of IKO
Praha1-nám. Republiky (U) NO2, PM10
Praha 2-Riegrovy sady (U) NO2, PM10, O3, SO2
Praha 4-Braník (T) NO2, PM10
Praha 4-Libuš (S) NO2, PM10, O3, SO2, CO
Praha 5-Smíchov (T) NO2, PM10, O3, CO
Praha 5-Stodůlky (U) NO2, PM10, O3, SO2
Praha 6-Suchdol (S) NO2, PM10, O3, SO2
Praha 8-Karlín (T) NO2, PM10
Praha 8-Kobylisy (S) NO2, PM10, O3, SO2
Praha 9-Vysočany (T) NO2, PM10, SO2, CO
Praha 10-Průmyslová (T) NO2, PM10, SO2
Praha 10-Vršovice (T) NO2, PM10, SO2

Note: Categorisation of stations: U-Urban, S-Suburban,
T-Traffic

Source: ČHMÚ


AREAS WITH POOR AIR QUALITY IN PRAGUE AGGLOMERATION

An area with poor air quality means an area within the territorial unit (zones or agglomerations) where is exceeded the immission limit value for the protection of human health for one or more pollutants (sulfur dioxide, particulate matter PM10, carbon dioxide, lead, carbon monoxide and benzene).

During the years 2006 - 2011 were OZKO defined 2.7 % (2009, the smallest area) up to 97.9 % (2006) agglomeration area (table B1.4). In 2011 OZKO defined 70.9 % of the territory (annual increase in the area – in 2010, 28.2%). Although there was a decrease in the concentrations of certain pollutants (SO2, NO2), for defining OZKO remain significant concentrations of PM10, which stagnated (annual average) or increased (daily average). The situation corresponds not only to the increase of the 36th highest 24-hour concentration of PM10, but also to a higher number of stations on the territory of Prague, where the daily emission limit value exceeded.

Fig B1.8 : Marking OZKO based on immission limit values for human health protection, Prague, 2011

Source: ČHMÚ

Table B1.4 : OZKO (Area with poor
air quality) on the territory
of Prague [% of city area]

Year Share of the territory of Prague
2006 97,9
2007 49,2
2008 9,9
2009 2,7
2010 28,2
2011 70,9

Source: ČHMÚ


SELECTED POLLUTANTS

The most sensitively monitored pollutants with the densest network of measuring stations belong air-borne dust (suspended particulates PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

PARTICULATES PM10

In 2011 it came again to the deterioration of air quality in the case of suspended particles PM10 compared to previous years - an increase of the 36th highest 24-hour concentration; however, annual average concentrations remain at the same level. Immission limit value of average 24-hour of PM10 concentration (50 μg.m-3, permitted exceeding 35 times) was in Prague in 2011 exceeded more than 35 times on 12 locations out of 16 (in 2010, 10 out of 17). The annual PM10 emission limit value (40 μg.m-3) was not exceeded at any of the 20 monitoring stations in 2011 (in 2010 at one station). Pollution caused by suspended particles PM10> remains one of the main problems of maintaining air quality in accordance with legislation.


Table B1.5 : Stations with the highest numbers of exceedances of 24-hour limit value for PM10, Prague, 2011

No. Locality Station category pLV Max. 24-hour concentration [μg.m-3] 36th highest 24-hour concentration [μg.m-3]
1 Pha5-Smíchov T/U/RC 68 110,7 63,0
2 Pha5-Řeporyje B/S/RA 65 136,0 61,0
3 Pha10-Vršovice T/U/R 53 137,4 60,7
4 Pha8-Karlín T/U/C 55 120,9 59,1
5 Pha10-Průmyslová T/U/IC 53 120,6 59,1
6 Pha5-Mlynářka T/U/RC 53 120,3 57,0
7 Pha9-Vysočany T/U/CR 46 117,8 56,0
8 Pha1-nám. Republiky B/U/C 45 131,8 55,0
9 Pha6-Veleslavín B/S/R 41 125,7 54,3
10 Pha6-Suchdol B/S/R 46 120,0 54,2
11 Pha2-Riegrovy sady B/U/NR 41 114,8 53,6
12 Pha4-Libuš B/S/R 36 100,3 50,4

Source: ČHMÚ

NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2)

Number of stations with exceeding the limit for annual average concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) remained the same as in 2010. In 2011, the concentration of NO2 generally slightly decreased; the average annual concentration of NO2 decreased or stagnated at more than 80 % of the stations, the 19th highest maximum concentrations decreased or remained at the same level at more than 70 % of the stations. At the measuring station Prague 2 - Legerova in year 2011 was recorded, as in the past years, a high number of exceedances (51) of the hourly immission limit value of the nitrogen dioxide concentration of 200 μg.m-3 which proves the great trouble of the City of Prague caused by traffic taken through its downtown. There is an annual exceedance of nitrogen dioxide immission limit value in Prague also mainly on traffic-exposed locations. From the total number of 20 stations, there was an exceedance of nitrogen dioxide immission limit value (40 μg.m-3) at 5 locations.

Fig B1.6 : Stations with the highest numbers of 24-hour limit exceedance of NO2, Prague, 2011

No. Locality Station category Yearly concentration [μg.m-3]
1 Pha2-Legerova (hot spot) T/U/RC 69,5
2 Pha5-Svornosti T/U/IR 46,1
3 Pha5-Smíchov T/U/RC 44,6
4 Pha9-Vysočany T/U/CR 40,9
5 Pha1-nám. Republiky B/U/C 40,4

Source: ČHMÚ

Fig B1.9 : Trends in yearly characteristics of the fraction PM10, Praha, 1996–2011

Source: ČHMÚ

Fig B1.10 : Trends in yearly characteristics of NO2, Praha,1996 – 2011

Source: ČHMÚ


AIR QUALITY MODELING

The project of modelling evaluation of air quality on the territory of the Capital City of Prague, whose holder is Studio of ecological models (ATEM), provides information about the current emission burden on the Capital City from the perspective of seven pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, benzene, suspended particulate matter PM10 and suspended particulate matter PM2,5. The Update 2012 builds on the modelling evaluation of emission and pollution situation in Prague, having been carried out under the project ATEM since 1992.

Fig B1.11 : Average yearly concentrations of selected pollutants, 2011

Source: Studio of ecological models (ATEM)