B3. Nature, landscape and greenery



Fig B3.1 : Decrements and increments of aggregate areas of different land types

Source: ČÚZK

Note: * Other areas also include construction sites.

LAND BALANCE

Land balance according to registration in the Cadastre of Real Estate for Prague in 2011 documents for the first time after 1990 a decline of the total acreage of built-up areas (8 ha compared to 2010, their share was at the end of 2011 approximately 10.1 % of the total area of the City, however, since 1990, increase of the total 762 ha), but there is also registered another increase in the acreage of so-called „other areas“, namely 88 ha compared to 2010, which is at the expense of agricultural land (in this area there is annual decrease of the area of 93 ha).


Table B3.1 : Aggregate areas of land types [ha]

Year Agriculture land* Forest land Water areas Build areas Other areas** Total
1990 21 495 4 858 1 073 4 267 17 921 49 614
2010 20 343 5 089 1 074 5 037 18 070 49 613
2011 20 250 5 099 1 076 5 029 18 158 49 613

Source: ČÚZK

Note: *Farmland includes arable land, hop-fields, vineyards, gardens, orchards and permanent grassland.   ** Other lands also include construction sites.

Fig B3.2 : Share of Agricultural Land Fund (ZPF) in the cadastral
of the Capital City of Prague

Source: ÚRM

Fig B3.3 : Share of forest areas in the cadastral
of the Capital City of Prague

Source: ÚRM

Fig B3.4 : Size of KES (coefficient of ecological stability) in cadastre of the City of Prague

Source: ÚRM


SUSTAINABLE USE OF THE TERRITORY

The City of Prague has significantly changed its character during past 20 years thanks to its development, mainly due to the restructuring of the areas inside the city and also thanks to displacement of the industry towards the city outskirts. The City of Prague has recorded a shift from growing quantity (areas occupied by new development) to increase of the intensity and quality of usage (increased share of regeneration of formerly developed areas) of the current premises and lands. The change in the structure of the city areas occurs in both the city outskirts, and especially in the little-utilized areas within the urbanized area.


USAGE OF BROWNFIELDS (NON-USED AND DEVASTATED AREAS AND PREMISES)

The valid Municipal Plan of the Capital City of Prague specifies the anticipated new functional utilization on surfaces which have lost their original function and wait for new usage. The greater part of these premises belongs to the original circle of industrial objects around the city and residential areas of Prague.

In the last twenty years brownfields have found new usage on the Prague territory namely in Smíchov, Radlice a Jinonice, where new buildings for living and rendition of services are being built. Another area is a complex of buildings in the area of Holešovice and Libeň surroundings and revitalization of Rohan Island, eventually areas in Manin (projects such as Lighthouse, etc.). Industrial areas in Karlín and their conversion to administration buildings, are not left behind, where some other reconstructions were done in relation with the removal of after-flood damage in Karlín, Libeň and Holešovice.

The share of the brownfields’ transformation implemented so far increases but the moves are still only about 3 % of the total area dedicated to the new usage. Out of all 157 newly updated brownfields on area of 1,550 ha in Prague are, however, most significant areas already subject to the interest of investors and developers and projects for their usage are under preparation.



NATURE CONSERVATION AND LANDSCAPE PROTECTION

In Prague there is a relatively large amount of valuable natural habitats that are protected by law on different degree of protection and the City of Prague takes an intensive and great care of the protection management and maintenance. On the Prague territory a legal protection of 90 small-scale protected areas was ensured at 31st December 2011 (of which 8 national natural monuments, 67 natural monuments and 15 natural reserves). It is a wide range of localities from the geological and paleontological ones through botanical, zoological, entomological to forest localities, with a total area of more than 2,200 hectares (about 4.4 % of the total area of the city). Within the creation of the system of Natura 2000, there are 12 localities of European importance approved by the government regulations on the City territory. Furthermore, 12 natural parks (the twelfth natural park Smetanka from January 2010) were established on the territory of the Capital City at 31st December 2010. At the same time 27 landmarks were registered (in 2010 three new significant landmarks) and 197 trees enjoyed the protection as memorial trees (within 2011 there was one newly announced memorable tree).

Prague nature is largely negatively affected by anthropogenic impacts (air pollution, noise pollution, excessive attendance of valuable natural sites, etc.). In order to monitor the impact of these factors, the Capital City of Prague has been providing since 1984 a bioindicating environmental monitoring by means of inventory of selected groups of plants and animals (in five-year cycle for 5 selected areas, in 2011 it was the territory of confluence of rivers Berounka and Vltava). The nature and landscape protection authorities provide any necessary protection under the law, but it is also necessary to take care of the individual localites. The Capital City of Prague provides this care in 76 small-scale specially protected areas (nature monuments and nature reserves) on Prague territory , namely in accordance with the plans of the care for each specially protected area (hereinafter as SPA). Administration of Protected Landscape Area Czech Karst provides care and maintenance for other SPAs on the city territory.

Fig B3.5 : Natural parks, small-scale specially protected areas and localities of European mportance on the territory of the Capital City of Prague, 2011

Source: OŽP MHMP






Fig B3.6 : Parks of all-prague significance in the Capital City of Prague, 2011

Source: RVP MHMP

CITY GREENERY


PARKS AND ALLEYS

Care of greenery in Prague, thus also parks and gardens, was carried out in 2011 according to the new concept of care for greenery in the Capital City of Prague approved in 2010, which divides the greenery newly into areas of all-prague significance (formerly Category I), a local significance and other areas.

The total area of gardens and parks belonging to the group of areas of all-prague significance (parks managed by the Department of Environmental Protection of the Prague City Hall) was about 229 ha, another areas of parks and gardens owned by the City were in the management of the city districts (areas of local significance).

In the administration of the Department of Envir. Protection of the Prague City Hall in 2011 were gardens and parks of all-prague significance Royal Park - Stromovka, Petřín Hill, the complex of gardens of Petřín Hill, Kinských Garden, Letenské Orchards, the park on the Vítkov Hill, Hradčanské Square, Vrtbovská Garden and the park section of Game Preserve Hvězda. In 2011 the Department of Envir. Protection of the Prague City Hall in the self-government activities continued, besides the regular maintenance, in the inevitable recovery of parks and managed and provided greenery development projects.


RENEWAL OF STREET ALLEYS OF ALL-PRAGUE SIGNIFICANCE

In 2011 in the Capital City of Prague 87 trees were planted within the project of a systematic recovery of street alleys of all-prague significance, while 25 trees were chopped down. Reconstruction and recovery projects were carried out in the localities of Kotlaska and Dr. Václav Holý Square in Prague 8, in Horňátecká street in Prague 8 and in U Vodárny street in Prague 3. Overall in 2011, approximately CZK 1.9 million were spent on the recovery of alleys of all-prague significance and about CZK 3.5 million on their maintainance.

Fig B3.7 : Reconstruction of street alley in the locality
Kotlaska - Dr. V. Holého Square in Prague 8

Source: RVP MHMP

Fig B3.8 : Total reconstruction of street alley on U Vodárny
street in Prague 3

Source: RVP MHMP



FORESTS

Fig B3.9: Forest areas in the capital city of Prague, 2011

Source: ÚRM, MHMP

All forest on the Prague territory are enlisted in the category of forests of special purposes as suburban forests with more intensive recreational function. Forests are one of the most respected and protected categories of greenery within the development of the Municipal Plan. The forest area on the Prague territory has grown in the last hundred years by almost one third. At present forest stands occupy approximately 10 % of the total city area – the area at 31st December 2011 was 5,099 ha, of which forest land owned by the municipality represented 2,700 hectares.

The largest and most frequent forest complexes are Klánovický Forest, Kunraticko - Michelský Forest, Divoká Šárka - Nebušice, Modřanská Ravine, Chuchelský Grove, Xaverovský Grove, Ďáblický Grove and Game Preserve Hvězda. Likewise other localities are interesting and valuable in terms of tourism and natural studies.


FOREST MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS OWNED BY THE CITY OF PRAGUE

The City of Prague in 2011 managed the maintenance and care of forest land owned by the municipality through the Department of Environmental Protection. The forest management is governed by forest law and forest-management plan, which is always processed for a ten year period. The forest-management plan for period 2004- 2013 came into force in January 2004. The forest property owned by the Capital City of Prague passed the certification via system PEFC (Pan European Forest Certification Council) and then also via the FSC® (Forest Stewardship Council®). In 1994 the City Council approved the intention to purchase forests owned by individuals. Over 215 ha of forest land had been purchased by 31st December 2011 for the city ownership. Simultaneously afforestation of originally agricultural land (in 2011 to about 7.3 ha, areas in Dolní Počernice, in Jinonice, in Běchovice, etc.) is being in progress.


Fig B3.10 : Newly afforested areas, 2002-2011

Source: RVP MHMP

THE FINANCIAL COSTS OF MAINTENANCE OF FORESTS OWNED BY THE CAPITAL CITY OF PRAGUE

Average maintenance costs: CZK 15,000/ha/year (in the price level of 2007); maintenance and repair of recreational properties: more than CZK 2.5 million/year; forest cleaning from regular waste and disposal of illegal dumps: more than CZK 4.5 million/year.