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MAGISTRÁT HLAVNÍHO MĚSTA PRAHY
PRAGUE CITY HALL

Ročenka – zpráva o stavu životního prostředí
Yearbook – report on state of the environment

 
 
 

C3  HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT

The Health Monitoring System of the Czech Republic Population in Relation to the Environment

The environment is, along with nutrition, one of the largest determinants of the human health. Therefore it is inevitable to monitor health hazards and impacts of the polluted environment on the human organism. The core monitoring programme in the Czech Republic has been the Health Monitoring System of the Czech Republic Population in Relation to the Environment since 1994, which has been implemented on the basis of the Decision of the Government of the Czech Republic No. 369/1991 Code, and is included in the Act No. 258/2000 Code on the public health protection, and, at the same time, makes one of priorities of the Action Plan for Health and the Environment of the Czech Republic approved by the Decision of the Government of the Czech Republic No. 810/1998 Code. The Monitoring System represents a comprehensive system of data collection, processing, and evaluation of information on state of environmental compartments and on their effects on health of the Czech population. Results are every year published in reports, which are available to the professional as well as general public at Internet pages www.szu.cz/publikace/monitoring-zdravi-a-zivotniho-prostredi.

The Monitoring System is carried out in selected municipalities, which are the Capital City of Prague, regional capitals, former district capitals, and other municipalities. On the contrary, monitoring in two subsystems is carried out nation wide (monitoring of public drinking water supply quality and health risks of labour conditions).

Air Quality

Data on air pollution used within the System originate from measuring stations operated by the Hygiene Service and the CHMI in 2009 (20 stations).

The development in air pollution has been favourable since 2006; the trend in majority of pollutants measured is characteristic for slight decrease. Despite the substances, which air emissions are directly bound to transportation and to processes related to transportation (primary emissions, re-suspensions, attrition, corrosion, …), have remained troublesome. These are mostly particulate matter of the fraction PM10, NO2, and benzo[a]pyrene (PAU), in which the immission and target immission limits were exceeded in Prague, and also benzene. On the City out-skirts higher values of arsenic were recorded as the air load from small local air pollution sources (< 0.2 MW).

While the population load with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone, carbon monoxide, or sulphur dioxide was in 2009 more or less unimportant from the health impact point of view, in the case of other materials as: nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter fraction PM10, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and heavy metals health hazards were higher. Concerning the carcinogenic risks the most important exposition is that to benzo[a]pyrene.

Fig. C3.1  Comparison of the range of theoretical probability estimate of increase in the number of neoplasms from the uptake of As, Ni, BaP, and benzene from ambient air in Prague in 2009

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Source: SZÚ

Drinking water

The drinking water quality in the distribution networks of public water mains, including small water mains in the outskirts of Prague, have been monitored within the national monitoring of the drinking water supply in the Czech Republic. Quality of the drinking water supplied has been evaluated according to the valid wording of the Decree of the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic No. 252/2004 Code.

In Prague 58,089 values of the drinking water quality indicators were obtained in 2009. For contaminants, which have established acceptable or tolerable exposition limit values, the evaluation of the population load from the drinking water consumption was made. Results were dominated by the exposition to nitrates. Exposition to other contaminants was at very low level in the year. The drinking water quality in the Prague’s water mains remained virtually at the same level as in the previous years. The drinking water consumption from public supply could not directly endanger public health. The epidemiological conditions analysis revealed that no case of disease was proven, in which drinking of potable water from the public water mains would be determined as the disease cause.

Fig. C3.2  The drinking water share of the daily acceptable uptake of contaminants

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Source: SZÚ

Recreational water bodies

In Prague water quality in recreational water bodies during the bathing season has been monitored at in total five swimming pools in nature. The most favourable conditions for bathing in 2009 were at the swimming pools Lhotka (filled with drinking water from water mains) and Motol. Water in the Hostivař Dam Lake (which was emptied for the period of 2010 and 2011) and in the Swimming Pool Džbán was classified as non-suitable for bathing for most of the year 2009.

Updated information on water duality of recreational water bodies are, in the course of the bathing season, published at www.hygpraha.cz (column Natural swimming pools).

Tab. C3.1 Evaluation of water quality of Prague’s natural swimming pools in 2009 according to the methodology guide of the Chief Hygienist of the Czech Republic

Koupaliště
Swimming pool

Týden roku 2009 / Week of the year 2009

14

17

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

Koupaliště Lhotka
Lhotka Swimming Poll

 

 

 

J

 

 

 

K

K

 

K

 

 

p

K

K

K

 

K

 

Koupaliště Šeberák
Šeberák Swimming Poll

 

 

 

 

K

 

 

K

J

 

 

K

 

p

 

p

 

p

 

 

Rybník Motol
Lake Motol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

K

 

J

 

 

K

K

K

 

K

K

L

K

Koupaliště Hostivař
Hostivař Swimming Poll

 

 

p

 

 

K

 

 

p

 

 

L

p

p

L

L

L

L

 

p

Koupaliště Džbán
Džbán Swimming Poll

L

p

p

 

L

 

L

L

 

 

p

 

 

p

L

p

K

 

p

 

J Water suitable for bathing
K Water suitable for bathing with sensorially noticeable deteriorated properties
p Deteriorated water quality
L Water non-suitable for bathing
L Water dangerous for bathing

Source: SZÚ

Biological monitoring

Biological monitoring represents the intersection of all exposition ways to pollutants and effects of adverse factors of polluted environment, including labour environment. The monitoring of the selected environmental pollutants content, namely toxic metals and persistent chlorinated organic compounds, in the population body fluids has been carried out within the framework of the Monitoring System since 1994, in Prague since 2005.

Levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Prague population blood have not exceeded the health important values and have been demonstrating a descending trend. Concentrations of chlorinated organic compounds (PDB, DDT, or hexachlorobenzene) have been monitored in breast milk of primiparae. The values found have just been mimicking the descending trend observed within the whole System. Levels of PCB found in the Czech population body fluids have been within the upper section of the range found in the EU Member States. The reason is the production of such compounds in former Czechoslovakia and their late implemented control.

Fig. C3.3  Lead content in blood of adults, Prague, 2005–2009

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Source: SZÚ

Fig. C3.4  Content of chlorinated organic compounds in breast milk, Prague, 2005–2009

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* The summary value of all DDT congeners monitored.

** PCB indicator congener.

Source: SZÚ

Labour conditions

The Act No. 258/2000 Code on public health protection imposes on the employer the duty the works performed at his workplaces are to be classified into one of four categories according to the evaluation of exposition to risk factors. In Prague 37,295 employees were registered in risky categories, out of them 9,829 were females (approximately three times less if compared to the national average). The most Prague’s employees working at hazardous workplaces are exposed to the factors of psychical load and noise. In the most hazardous category of work the highest number of employees is exposed to vibrations.

In 2009 there were in total 33 occupational diseases reported in Prague (in the whole Czech Republic 1,313). The largest share was transmittable and parasitary (for instance contagious jaundice), furthermore diseases caused by physical factors, and dermatologic occupational diseases. The most frequent reports were received from the industries of “health and social care” and “building industry”.

Fig. C3.5  The number of employees exposed to respective labour risk factors in Prague

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Source: SZÚ

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© Magistrát hlavního města Prahy | Prague City Hall
Únor 2011 | February 2011